Weak Verb ( الفِعْلُ الْمُعْتَلُّ ) & Strong Verb ( الفِعْلُ الصَّحِيْحُ )

و , ا and ي are called  حَرْفُ العِلَّةِ or weak letter. And that verb which does not have ‘harfu illat’ they are called فِعْلٌ صَحِيحٌ or strong verb. Strong verbs are of three types.

 

 Strong Verb  ( فِعْلٌ صَحِيحٌ ) 

مُضَعَّفٌ

مَهْمُوزٌ

سَالِمٌ

ع kalima and ل kalima same

أ  in verb

no أ in verb andع  kalima & ل kalima not same

He did hajj

حَجَّ

He ate

أَكَلَ

He sat

جَلَسَ

He hurt

ضَرَّ

He asked

سَأَلَ

He went

ذَهَبَ

He thought

ظَنَّ

He read

قَرَأَ

He helped

نَصَرَ

 

Those verbs which contain ا , ي and  و those are termed as weak verb الفِعْلُ الْمُعْتَلُّ.  Example: قَالَ , رَاَى  etc. In the written form of the weak verb,  و is replaced with ا (alif) and ي  is replaced with ا (alif) or ى (alif maksura). Some formula are provided below:

قَوَلَ > قَالَ

خَوِفَ > خَافَ

 دَعَوَ > دَعَا

 

If there is a jabr before the و with harakah it will be transformed to ا  

 

 سَيَرَ > سَارَ

مَشَيَ  > مَشَى

بَكَيَ > بَكَى

 

If there is a jabr before the ي with harakah it will be transformed to ا  or ى.

 

نَسِيَ > نَسِيَ

رَضِيَ > رَضِيَ

If there is a jer before the ي with harakah it will remain as it is.

 

Weak verbs are of three types.

Weak Verb ( الفِعْلُ اَلْمُعْتَلُّ ) 

اَلنَّاقِصُ

 ل kalima is weak

اَلْأَجْوَفُ

 ع kalima is weak

اَلْمِثَالُ

ف kalima is weak

He guided

(هَدَى (هَدَيَ

He walked

(سَارَ (سَيَرَ

He got

وَجَدَ

He called

(دَعَا (دَعَوَ

He said

(قَالَ (قَوَلَ

He kept

وَضَعَ

He survived

(بَكَى (بَكَيَ

He slept

(نَامَ (نَوِمَ

He was cheerful

يَسَرَ

He saw

(رَاَى (رَأَيَ

 

 

He got up from sleep

يَقِظَ

 

We have seen about سَالِمٌ  verb in the previous chapter. We will see remaining verbs in this chapter.